How do pre-service teachers practice culturally-responsive critical pedagogy in the classroom? This study of two pre-service teachers investigated a professional practice placement that followed theory courses. The research found five applications of culturally-responsive critical pedagogy: reflecting on self and identity; centring ākonga (learners); uplifting culture; developing critical consciousness; and improving academic outcomes for non-dominant culture learners. However, the pre-service teachers placed varied emphasis on those applications, including not engaging with the achievement application. The research offers concrete practice examples of culturally-responsive critical pedagogy by pre-service teachers, and questions the assumption that novice pre-service teachers have the skills to enact theory-to-practice.
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