Waikato Journal of Education


Games, probabilistic thinking, primary and secondary schools, culturally-responsive teaching, systematic literature review


Probability is relatively a new discipline in school curricula in many countries. There is rich literature on students’ personal beliefs and misconceptions in probability.  However, less attention has been paid to the development of students’ probabilistic thinking in the classroom. Recently suggestions have been made to use games and simulations to overcome misconceptions in probability. This paper presents a systematic literature review that focuses on identification of games for the teaching and learning of probability at the school level. It maps out mathematics and statistics education research literature from 2010-2020 and targets student participants from Year 1-13 and pre-service teachers along with a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The analysis process identified six different categories of games that can be used in teaching and learning of probability. While a large number of games discussed in literature involved the use of tokens, coins or dice, only one study used a cultural game to enhance student learning in probability. The paper draws some conclusions and offers suggestions for further research in this area. 

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